Congressional Republicans appear unlikely to even attempt to pass a budget resolution that could allow them to push cuts of that sort through the Senate without any Democratic votes, having reserved that move last year not for spending cuts, but for tax cuts that the Joint Committee on Taxation estimates will add more than $1 trillion to the national debt, even after accounting for increased economic growth.

The most energy the party put last year into actually reducing spending and deficits was its attempted repeal of the Affordable Care Act, which failed after three Republicans defected. Mr. Trump’s budget assumes that effort will now succeed, somehow. Party leaders have downplayed suggestions floated by Speaker Paul D. Ryan of Wisconsin, among others, that Congress could move this year to reduce future spending on safety net programs such as Medicare and Social Security.

“Republicans will still tell you that runaway spending hurts the economy,” said Brian Riedl, a…

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